The concept of machine-readable and machine-executable law: relevance, purpose, place in RegTech, content, ontology and prospects

Igor Ponkin


The article is devoted to the research and explanation of the concept of machine-readable and machine-executable law. The author explains the place and significance of this concept as one of the directions of digital transformations in law and as one of the elements of LegalTech regulatory technologies. The article provides an overview of Russian and foreign legal acts and documents on machine-readable forms and formats. The article explains the general concept of "machine-readable format". The author provides an overview of explanations of the concept of machine-readable law presented in the scientific literature. The author substantiates that the creation of machine-readable and machine-executable law is due to quite reasonable-rational, relevant considerations (goals) of the applied order and a high degree of actualization. The authors sets out in detail the author's vision of the functional purpose of machine-readable and machine-executable law, the cases and methods of its application. The article states that despite the objectively existing limits of digital formalization and the limits of transformation of law into a machine-readable form, the translation of some parts of the law into machine-readable forms is quite possible. This is due to the law's high degree of formalization and algorithmization. The issue of real possibilities and examples of the creation of machine-readable and machine-executable law is reflected in this publication. The author's interpretation identifies the determinants of ensuring machine-readability of the law in a legal act intended for machine-readable and machine-executable operation. The article describes the author's concept of machine-readable and machine-executable law. In conclusion, the author concludes that solving the problem of achieving a full, working modality of machine readability and machine execution of law will significantly increase the effectiveness of law.

Full Text:

PDF (Russian)


Epifanova T.V., Vovchenko N.G., Toporov D.A., Pozdnyshov A.N. Development of Legal Education and Machine-Readable Law in the Conditions of Economy Digitization // Digital Economy: Complexity and Variety vs. Rationality / Editors: Elena G. Popkova, Bruno S. Sergi. – Cham (Switzerland): Springer, 2020. – xx; 1055 p. – P. 971–979.

Kovaleva N.N. Mashinochitaemoe pravo kak mekhanizm umnogo regulirovaniia v oblasti sviazi [Machine-readable law as a mechanism for smart regulation in the field of communications] // Pravovaia politika i pravovaia zhizn' [Legal policy and legal life]. – 2019. – N 3. – P. 158–159.

Zenin S.S., Izhaev O.A., Kuteinikov D.L., Yapryntsev I.M. Praktika primeneniia tsifrovykh tekhnologii v zakonodatel'nom protsesse v zarubezhnykh gosudarstvakh: sravnitel'no-pravovoi analiz [The practice of using digital technologies in the legislative process in foreign countries: a comparative legal analysis] // Iuridicheskoe obrazovanie i nauka [Legal education and science]. – 2019. – N 8. – P. 38–42.

Romanov A.Yu. Problemy perevoda norm prava v mashinochitaemyi vid i avtomatizatsii ikh primeneniia sudom [Problems of translating the norms of law into a machine-readable form and automating their application by the court] // Kruglyi stol “Iazyk pravotvorchestva v usloviiakh tsifrovizatsii obshchestvennykh otnoshenii” [Round table "The language of lawmaking in the context of digitalization of public relations"] (Moscow, 25.09.2019). – Moscow: INFRA-M, 2019. – P. 218–222.

Vashkevich A.M. Avtomatizatsiia prava: pravo kak elektrichestvo [Automation of law: law as electricity]. – Moscow: Simplawyer, 2019. – 256 p.

Kelso L.O. Does the Law Need a Technological Revolution // Rocky Mountain Law Review. – 1945–1946. – Vol. 18. – P. 378–383.

Loevinger L. Jurimetrics. The Next Step Forward // Minnesota Law Review (Journal of the State Bar Association). – 1949, April. – Vol. 33. – N 5. – P. 455–493.

Mehl L. Automation in the Legal World: From the machine processing of legal information to the «Law Machine» // Mechanization of Thought Processes: Proceedings of a Symposium Held at the National Physical Laboratory on 24–27 November 1958. – London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1959. – P. 755–780.

Genesereth M. Computational Law: The Cop in the Backseat // ; . – 8 p.

Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 // .

Circular № A–11 «Preparation, submission, and execution of the Budget» / Executive office of the President; Office of management and budget, 2019, December // .

Rodionova O.M. Pravo i tsifrovye tekhnologii [Law and digital technologies] // Bulletin of the Saratov State Law Academy [Vestnik Saratovskoi gosudarstvennoi iuridicheskoi akademii]. – 2019. – N 6. – P. 85–89.

Vashkevich A.M., Duyunov A. Avtomatizatsiia prava: Zakonodatel'stvo. Publichnoe pravoprimenenie. Dogovory i chastno-pravovye normy. Ogranicheniia: Kontseptsiia [Automation of Law: Legislation. Public enforcement. Contracts and private law. Constraints: Concept]. – Moscow: Simplawyer, 2019. – 19 p.

Shepeleva O.S., Suchkova M.A., Bogapova A.V. and etc. Voprosy regulirovaniia tsifrovoi ekonomiki: Analiticheskii otchet [Regulating the Digital Economy: Analytical Report]. – Moscow, 2019. – 491 p.

Better Rules for Government: Discovery Report, March 2018 // . – 47 p.

Morkhat P.M. Pravo i iskusstvennyi intellekt: Tezaurus [Law and Artificial Intelligence: Thesaurus]. – Moscow: Buki Vedi, 2019. – 52 p.

Arunkumar S., Chockalingam T. Genetic search algorithms and their randomized operators // Computers & Mathematics with Applications. – 1993, March. – Vol. 25. – N 5. – P. 91–100.

Mashinochitaemoe pravo: vozmozhnosti i problemy [Machine-readable Law: opportunities and challenges] // .

Morkhat P.M. Primenenie iskusstvennogo intellekta v sudebnom protsesse [The use of artificial intelligence in the Litigation] // Vestnik grazhdanskogo protsessa [Civil Procedure Bulletin]. – 2019. – Т. 9. – N 3. – P. 61–85.

Smarter Legal Research // .

Heller J. You’re Bad at Legal Research, and Your Judge Knows It. One reason artificial intelligence is a hot topic in law: When attorneys miss precedents, the stakes are high // . – 24.05.2018.

How Silicon Valley Puts the ‘Con’ in Consent. If no one reads the terms and conditions, how can they continue to be the legal backbone of the internet? // . – 02.02.2019.

Ponkin I.V., Redkina A.I. Tsifrovoe gosudarstvennoe upravlenie: metod tsifrovykh modelei-dvoinikov (BIM) v prave [Digital Government: The Digital Twin Model (BIM) Method in Law] // Gosudarstvennaia sluzhba [Public service]. – 2020. – Т. 22. – N 2. – P. 64–69.

Ponkin I.V., Redkina A.I. Ispol'zovanie BIM-tekhnologii v prave [The use of BIM technologies in law] // Publichno-pravovye sredstva effektivnosti razvitiia ekonomiki i finansov [Public law means of economic and financial development efficiency]. Part 1 / Ed. by G.F. Ruchkina, M.A. Lapina. – Moscow: Knorus, 2020. – 246 p. – P. 25–30.

Ponkin I.V., Redkina A.I. Tsifrovaia formalizatsiia prava [Digital formalization of law] // International Journal of Open Information Technologies. – 2019. – Vol. 7. – N 1. – P. 39–48.

Ponkin I.V., Redkina A.I. Tsifrovye ontologii prava i tsifrovoe pravovoe prostranstvo [Digital ontologies of law and digital legal space] // Permskii iuridicheskii al'manakh [Perm Legal Almanac]. – 2019. – P. 24–37.

Mechanical Reasoning Test // .

CEN MetaLex. Open XML Interchange Format for Legal and Legislative Resources // .

About LegalXML. Overview of the OASIS LegalXML Member Section // .

A brief exchange with Tim O’Reilly about «algorithmic regulation» // . – 15.02.2014.

O’Reilly T. Open Data and Algorithmic Regulation // .

Harbert T. The Law Machine // IEEE Spectrum. – 2013. – Vol. 50. – N 11. – P. 31–34, 53–54.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Abava  Кибербезопасность FRUCT 2024

ISSN: 2307-8162