Ontologies as a Toolkit for Practical Analytics

Igor Ponkin


The article is devoted to the study and explanation of ontologies as a complex toolkit for practical analytics. The author explains the place, meaning and scope of the relevant applicability of the specified tools. The article presents a number of clarifying points. The article provides an overview of the definitions and explanations of the concept of "ontology" presented in the scientific literature (as a tool). The author notes that a high degree of mismatch of meanings reflected in the definitions of different authors creates significant difficulties in understanding the concept under study. The article outlines important aspects of ontology as a complex analytical toolkit, through which its essence is revealed. The article notes that an example of the simplest modality of the ontology of a certain subject-object area is its basic thesaurus – well-composed and synchronized (within itself). The author presents his definition of the concept under study. The article outlines the areas of application of legal ontologies as tools. The article shows that ontologies as tools are potentially in demand in the following areas: 1) processing and extracting structuring and generally ordering and integrating the organization of legal information, 2) semantic indexing of legal information, 3) modeling legal actions, 4) standardization of normative onto-units and their complexes, 5) representation of legal and meta-legal knowledge in general, 6) design and development of information-legal, expert-legal and other systems. The use of instrumental ontologies provides ample opportunities to ensure competitiveness in the market of services and works of applied analytics, provides valuable opportunities for operating complex subject-object areas, especially in conditions of incomplete data and high dynamics of changes.

Full Text:

PDF (Russian)


Jia M.-Y., Yang B.-R., Zheng D.-Q. et al. Research on Domain Ontology Construction in Military Intelligence // IEEE 2009 Third International Symposium on Intelligent Information Technology Application (Nanchang, China, 21–22.11.2009). – New York, 2009. – P. 116–119.

Yoo D., No S., Ra M. A Practical Military Ontology Construction for the Intelligent Army Tactical Command Information System // International Journal of Computers, Communications & Control (IJCCC). – 2014. – Vol. 9. – № 1. – P. 93–100.

Dragos V. Developing a core ontology to improve military intelligence analysis // International Journal of Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Engineering Systems. – 2013. – Vol. 17. – № 1. – P. 29–36.

DAMA-DMBOK: Svod znanii po upravleniiu dannymi [Data Management Body of Knowledge]. Edition 2 / DAMA International. – Moscow: Olimp-Business, 2020. – 828 p.

ISO 19101-1:2014 «Geographic information – Reference model. Part 1: Fundamentals» // .

Studer R., Benjamins V.R., Fensel D. Knowledge engineering: Principles and methods // Data & Knowledge Engineering. – 1998, March. – Vol. 25. – № 1–2. – P. 161–197.

Guts A.K. Aksiomaticheskaia teoriia otnositel'nosti [Axiomatic theory of relativity] // Успехи математических наук [Advances in Mathematical Sciences]. – 1982. – Vol. 37. – № 2. – P. 40–79.

Kirkman J. Good Style: Writing for science and technology. 2nd ed. – New York: Routledge, 2005. – vi; 139 p.

Ponkin I.V., Lapteva A.I. Metodologiia nauchnykh issledovanii i prikladnoi analitiki: Uchebnik [Methodology of Scientific Research and Practical Analytics: A Textbook]. Edition 3. – Moscow: Buki Vedi, 2022. – 754 p. .

Siegel A., Etzkorn I. Kratko. Iasno. Prosto [Briefly. Clear. Simply]. – Moscow: Olimp-Business, 2015. – xviii; 231 p.

Hume D. Radical Empiricism // Sapientia: Open Readings in Philosophy / Edited by Henry Imler. – Montreal: Pressbooks, 2019. .

Hartmann N. Kleinere Schriften. Bd. III: Vom neukantianismus zur ontologie. – Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1958. – iii; 396 s.

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in a letter to Philip Spener, The Art of Discovery 1685, Wiener 51 // Let Us Calculate – the Last Universal Academic Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz // .

Feilmayr C., Wöß W. An analysis of ontologies and their success factors for application to business // Data & Knowledge Engineering. – 2016. – Vol. 101. – P. 1–23.

Jepsen T.C. Just What Is an Ontology, Anyway? // IT Professional. – 2009, September/October. – Vol. 11. – P. 22–27.

Gruber T.R. A translation approach to portable ontologies // Knowledge Acquisition. – 1993. – № 5. – P. 199–220.

Volokitin Yu.I., Kupriyanovsky V.P., Grinko O.V., Pokusaev O.N., Sinyagov S.A. Problemy tsifrovoi ekonomiki i formalizovannye ontologii [Problems of the digital economy and formalized ontologies] // International Journal of Open Information Technologies. – 2018. – Vol. 6. – № 6. – P. 87–96.

Rubashkin V.Sh. Ontologicheskaia semantika. Znaniia. Ontologii. Ontologicheski orientirovannye metody informatsionnogo analiza tekstov [Ontological semantics. Knowledge. Ontologies. Ontologically oriented methods of information analysis of texts]. – Moscow: Fizmatlit, 2013. – 348 p.

Valente A. Types and Roles of Legal Ontologies // Law and the Semantic Web: Legal Ontologies, Methodologies, Legal Information Retrieval, and Applications / Eds.: V.R. Benjamins, P. Casanovas, J. Breuker, A. Gangemi. – New York: Springer. 2005. – xii; 248 p. – P. 65–76.

Analiticheskii slovar' [Analytical Dictionary] / Ed. by Yu.N.Koptev. – Moscow: Association «Analytics», 2015. – 132 p.

Morkhat P.M. Pravo i iskusstvennyi intellekt: Tezaurus [Law and Artificial Intelligence: Thesaurus]. – Moscow: Buki Vedi, 2019. – 52 p.

Gadzhiev G.A. Ontologiia prava: Kriticheskoe issledovanie iuridicheskogo kontsepta deistvitel'nosti [Ontology of Law: A Critical Study of the Legal Concept of Reality]. – Moscow: Norma - INFRA-M, 2013. – 320 p.

Lomov P.A., Oleinik A.G. Razrabotka tekhnologii proverki i soglasovaniia normativno-pravovoi bazy na osnove ontologii [Development of a technology for checking and harmonizing the regulatory framework based on ontologies] // Trudy Instituta sistemnogo analiza RAN [Proceedings of the Institute for System Analysis of the Russian Academy of Sciences]. – 2013. – Vol. 63. – № 2. – P. 62–69.

Mirolyubova S.Yu. Pravovye ontologii v mashinochitaemom formate – instrument prodvizheniia iuridicheskikh znanii v semanticheskoi seti [Legal ontologies in a machine-readable format - a tool for promoting legal knowledge in the semantic web] // Monitoring pravoprimeneniia [Law enforcement monitoring]. – 2022. – № 1. – P. 39–45.

European project for standardized transparent representations in order to extend legal accessibility // .

Benjamins V.R., Casanovas P., Breuker J., Gangemi A. Law and the Semantic Web, an Introduction // Law and the Semantic Web: Legal Ontologies, Methodologies, Legal Information Retrieval, and Applications / Eds.: V.R. Benjamins, P. Casanovas, J. Breuker, A. Gangemi. – New York: Springer. 2005. – xii; 248 p. – P. 1–17.

Oliveira, de Rodrigues C.M., Gonçalves de Freitas F.L., Spósito Barreiros E.F., et al. Legal ontologies over time: A systematic mapping study // Expert Systems with Applications. – 2019. – Vol. 130. – P. 12–30.

Cardillo R. Small Satellites – Big Data // . – 08.08.2017.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Abava  Absolutech Convergent 2022

ISSN: 2307-8162