Digital technologies in law enforcement: criteria for a legitimate combination of public and private interests

Evgeny Mamay


The article discusses the use of digital technologies in law enforcement through the prism of the balance of public and private interests. The author analyses the system of legal regulation, studies the normative legal acts regulating digital relations and the use of information and communication technologies. Empirical ground of the study constitutes of more than 30 decisions adopted by various judicial instances in Russia, as well as more than 20 decisions of the European Court of Human Rights. Comparative legal material is represented by the study of foreign legislation, in particular the United States, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, France, and the European Union as a whole. The obtained results made it possible to determine the achieved level of regulation of digital relations, to assess the balance of competing public and private interests. In the sphere under consideration gaps and disproportions in legal regulation and law enforcement are identified, the key areas for their improvement are offered.

Full Text:

PDF (Russian)


L. Brandeis, S. Warren, “The right to privacy”, Harvard Law Review, vol. IV, no. 5, 1890.

M. Svensson, C. Rosengren, F. Åström, „Digitalization and Privacy: A systematic literature review”, Lund University (Media-Tryck) [Online]. Available: digitalization-and-privacy-a-systematic-literature-review (accessed: 24.10.2022).

Z. Zhang, S. Lian, Q. Pei, J. Pu, Fuzzy Risk Assessments on Security Policies for Digital Rights Management, 2010 [Online]. Available: on_Security_Policies_for_Digital_Rights_Management/links/55fc01a908ae07629e07d10a/Fuzzy-Risk-Assessments-on-Security-Policies-for-Digital-Rights-Management.pdf (accessed: 24.10.2022)

T. Winkler, B. Rinner, “Securing Embedded Smart Cameras with Trusted Computing”, Eurasip Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, 2011, doi: 10.1155/2011/530354.

S. Wicker, D. Schrader, “Privacy-Aware Design Principles for Information Networks:, in Proceedings of the IEEE, 2011, no. 99, pp. 330–350, doi: 10.1109/JPROC.2010.2073670.

A. Cavoukian, Privacy by Design The 7 Foundational Principles, 2011 [Online]. Available: 7foundationalprinciples.pdf (accessed: 24.10.2022).

H.A. McKee, “Policy Matters Now and in the Future: Net Neutrality, Corporate Data Mining, and Government Surveillance”, Computers and Composition, no. 28(4), pp. 276–291, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.compcom.2011.09.001.

D. Michelfelder, “The moral value of informational privacy in cyberspace”, Ethics and Information Technology, no. 3, pp. 129–135, 2001, doi: 10.1023/A:1011802227136.

E.A. Mamay

D. Vitaliev, “Big brother is watching you [Internet security]”, Communications Engineer, no. 5(5), pp. 20–25, 2007, doi: 10.1049/ce:20070502.

C. Amos, L. Zhang, I. Pentina, “Investigating Privacy Perception and Behavior on Weibo”, Journal of Organizational and End User Computing, no. 26(4), pp. 43–56, 2011, doi: 10.4018/joeuc.2014100103.

D. Barnard-Wills, “E-safety education: Young people, surveillance and responsibility”, Criminology & Criminal Justice, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 239–255, 2012, doi: 10.1177/1748895811432957.

Y.J. Park, S.M. Jang, S. Mo Jang, “Understanding privacy knowledge and skill in mobile communication”, Computers in Human Behavior, no. 38, pp. 296–303, 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2014.05.041.

S. Preibusch, “Privacy behaviors after Snowden”, Communications of the ACM, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 48–55, 2015, doi: 10.1145/2663341.

A. Champion, Trusted Computing and Digital Rights Management Clearinghouse. 2007 [Online]. Available: 34658680_Trusted_Computing_and_Digital_Rights_Management_Clearinghouse (accessed: 24.10.2022).

P.P. Garlinger, “Privacy, Free Speech, and The Patriot Act: First and Fourth Amendment Limits on National Security Letters”, New York University Law Review, vol. 84, no. 4, pp. 1105–1147, 2009.

E.N. Beck, “The Invisible Digital Identity: Assemblages in Digital Networks”, Computers and Composition, no. 35, pp. 125–140, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.compcom.2015.01.005.

A.Y. Cover, “Corporate Avatars and the Erosion of the Populist Fourth Amendment”, Iowa Law Review, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 1441–1502, 2015.

M. Hu, “Biometric ID Cybersurveillance”, Indiana Law Journal, vol. 88, no. 4, pp. 1475–1558, 2013.

F.S. Grodzinsky, H.T. Tavani, “P2P Networks and the Verizon v. RIAA Case: Implications for Personal Privacy and Intellectual Property”, Ethics and Information Technology, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 243–250, 2005, doi: 10.1007/s10676-006-0012-4.

T. Konstadinides, “Destroying democracy on the ground of defending It? The Data Retention Directive, the surveillance state and our constitutional ecosystem”, European Law Review, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 722–736, 2011 [Online]. Available: journalArticle/Destroying-democracy-on-the-ground-of-defending-it-The-Data-Retention-Directive-the-surveillance-state-and-our-constitutional-ecosystem/99516662902346 (accessed: 24.10.2022).

A. Mantelero, “The future of consumer data protection in the EU Re-thinking the «notice and consent» paradigm in the new era of predictive analytics”, Computer Law & Security Review, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 643–660, 2014, doi: 10.1016/j. clsr.2014.09.004.

S.R. Peppet, “Regulating the Internet of Things: First Steps Toward Managing Discrimination, Privacy, Security and Consent”, Texas Law Review, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 85–178, 2014.

A. Roberts, “Privacy, Data Retention and Domination: Digital Rights Ireland Ltd v Minister for Communications”, Modern Law Review, vol. 78, no. 3, pp. 535–548, 2015, doi: 10.1111/1468-2230.12127.

M.K. Riedy, J.H. Wen, “Electronic surveillance of Internet access in the American workplace: implications for management”, Information & Communications Technology Law, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 87–99, 2010, doi: 10.1080/13600831003726374.

D.R. Desai, “Constitutional Limits on Surveillance: Associational Freedom in The Age of Data Hoarding”, Notre Dame Law Review, vol. 90, no. 2, pp. 579–632, 2014.

J.A.T. Fairfield, E. Luna, “Digital Innocence”, Cornell Law Review, vol. 99, no. 5, pp. 981–1076, 2014.

T. Ojanen, “Privacy Is More Than Just a Seven-Letter Word: The Court of Justice of the European Union Sets Constitutional Limits on Mass Surveillance Court of Justice of the European Union, Decision of 8 April 2014 in Joined Cases C-293/12 and C-594/12”, Digital Right. European Constitutional Law Review, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 528–541, 2014, doi: 10.1017/S1574019614001345.

N.S. Zheleznyak, “K voprosu ob utochnenii terminologii v resheniyah Konstitucionnogo Suda Rossijskoj Federacii”, Vestnik Sibirskogo yuridicheskogo instituta MVD Rossii, no. 4(29), pp. 7–13, 2017. (In Russian)

A.M. Karl, “Sootnoshenie neglasnyh sledstvennyh dejstvij i operativno-rozysknyh meropriyatij”, Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo universiteta MVD Rossii, no. 3(83), pp. 144–151, 2019. (In Russian)

I.A. Odnoshevin, “Sudebnyj kontrol' - garantiya konstitucionnyh prav grazhdan, vovlechennyh v sferu operativno-rozysknoj deyatel'nosti”, Yurist – Pravoved, no. 4(87), pp. 187-192, 2018. (In Russian)

V.N. Omelin, “O provedenii operativno-rozysknyh meropriyatij v sluchayah, ne terpyashchih otlagatel'stva”, Zakon i pravo, no. 3, pp. 112–114, 2019, doi:10.24411/2073-3313-2019-10123. (In Russian)

S.M. Hovavko, “Pravovye garantii soblyudeniya konstitucionnyh prav cheloveka i grazhdanina pri provedenii operativno-rozysknyh meropriyatij”, Obshchestvo i pravo, no. 4(58), pp. 131–136, 2016. (In Russian)

A.E. Chechetin, “O sovershenstvovanii prokurorskogo nadzora za operativno-rozysknoj deyatel'nost'yu”, Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo universiteta MVD Rossii, no. 3(79), pp. 134-139, 2018. (In Russian)

Zayavlenie MID Rossii o zapuske procedury vyhoda iz Soveta Evropy 15 marta 2022 goda [Online]. Available: (accessed: 16.03.2022).

Federal'nyj zakon ot 12 avgusta 1995 goda № 144-FZ (red. ot 30.12.2021) «Ob operativno-rozysknoj deyatel'nosti», Rossijskaya gazeta, 1995, August 18. (In Russian)

Opredelenie Konstitucionnogo Suda RF ot 14 iyulya 1998 goda № 86-O «Po delu o proverke konstitucionnosti otdel'nyh polozhenij Federal'nogo zakona «Ob operativno - rozysknoj deyatel'nosti» po zhalobe grazhdanki I.G. Chernovoj», Rossijskaya gazeta, 1998, August 11. (In Russian)

Case of S. and Marper v. United Kingdom (Applications № 30562/04 and 30566/04) [Online]. Available: (accessed: 19.09.2022).

Case of Shimovolos v. Russia (Application № 30194/09) [Online].

Available: (accessed: 19.09.2022).

Affaire Ben Faiza c. France (Requête № 31446/12) [Online]. Available: (accessed: 19.09.2022).

Prikaz MVD Rossii № 776, Minoborony Rossii № 703, FSB Rossii № 509, FSO Rossii № 507, FTS Rossii № 1820, SVR Rossii № 42, FSIN Rossii № 535, FSKN Rossii № 398, SK Rossii № 68 ot 27.09.2013 «Ob utverzhdenii Instrukcii o poryadke predstavleniya rezul'tatov operativno-rozysknoj deyatel'nosti organu doznaniya, sledovatelyu ili v sud», Rossijskaya gazeta, 2013, December 13. (In Russian)

Delo Rasula Dzhafarova protiv Azerbajdzhana (Zayavlenie № 69981/14) [Online]. Available: (accessed: 24.10.2022). (In Russian)

Case of Catt v. the United Kingdom (Application № 43514/15) [Online]. Available: (accessed: 24.10.2022).

Affaire Félix Dagregorio et Alain Mosconi c. France (Requête № 65714/11 [Online]. Available: (accessed: 24.10.2022).

Case of Nagla v. Latvia (Application № 73469/10) [Online]. Available: (accessed: 24.10.2022).

Obysk u zhurnalista kak sposob raskryt' ego istochniki [Online]. Available: (accessed: 24.10.2022). (In Russian)

Zakon RF ot 27 dekabrya 1991 goda № 2124-1 (red. ot 01.07.2021) «O sredstvah massovoj informacii», Rossijskaya gazeta, 1992, February 8. (In Russian)

The principle of independence of lawyers: UN and IBA reference instruments. Basic Principles on the Role of Lawyers and the IBA Standards for the Independence of the Legal Profession, INTERNATIONAL BAR ASSOCIATION [Online]. Available: (accessed: 06.04.2022).

Federal'nyj zakon ot 31 maya 2002 goda № 63-FZ (red. ot 31.07.2020) «Ob advokatskoj deyatel'nosti i advokature v Rossijskoj Federacii», Rossijskaya gazeta, 2002, June 5. (In Russian)

Opredelenie Konstitucionnogo Suda RF ot 8 noyabrya 2005 goda № 439-O «Po zhalobe grazhdan S.V. Borodina, V.N. Burobina, A.V. Bykovskogo i drugih na narushenie ih konstitucionnyh prav stat'yami 7, 29, 182 i 183 Ugolovno-processual'nogo kodeksa Rossijskoj Federacii», Rossijskaya gazeta, 2006, January 31. (In Russian)

Opredelenie Konstitucionnogo Suda RF ot 22 marta 2012 № 629-O-O «Ob otkaze v prinyatii k rassmotreniyu zhaloby grazhdanina Abdulhamidova Ahmedshapi Gamzatovicha na narushenie ego konstitucionnyh prav polozheniyami statej 8 i 9 Federal'nogo zakona «Ob operativno-rozysknoj deyatel'nosti», a takzhe statej 7, 29 i 450 Ugolovno-processual'nogo kodeksa Rossijskoj Federacii» [Online]. Available: (accessed: 06.04.2022).

Apellyacionnoe postanovlenie Verhovnogo Suda CHechenskoj Respubliki № 22-K-221/2020 ot 7 iyulya 2020 goda po ugolovnomu delu № 3/6-124/20 [Online]. Available: (accessed: 06.04.2022) (In Russian).

Case of Kolesnichenko v. Russia (Application o. 19856/04) [Online]. Available: (accessed: 06.04.2022).

Opredelenie Konstitucionnogo Suda RF ot 15 iyulya 2008 goda № 460-O-O «Ob otkaze v prinyatii k rassmotreniyu zhaloby grazhdanina Bukreeva Vladimira Viktorovicha na narushenie ego konstitucionnyh prav otdel'nymi polozheniyami statej 5, 11 i 12 Federal'nogo zakona «Ob operativno-rozysknoj deyatel'nosti» i punktom 13 Instrukcii o poryadke predstavleniya rezul'tatov operativno-rozysknoj deyatel'nosti doznavatelyu, organu doznaniya, sledovatelyu, prokuroru ili v sud» [Online]. Available: (accessed: 06.04.2022). (In Russian)

Postanovlenie Konstitucionnogo Suda RF ot 9 iyunya 2011 goda № 12-P «Po delu o proverke konstitucionnosti polozhenij punkta 7 stat'i 16 Zakona Rossijskoj Federacii «O statuse sudej v Rossijskoj Federacii» i chasti pervoj stat'i 9 Federal'nogo zakona «Ob operativno-rozysknoj deyatel'nosti» v svyazi s zhaloboj grazhdanina I.V. Anosova», Rossijskaya gazeta, 2011, 22 июня. (In Russian)

Vychislyaemye dannye mogut rasskazat' o nas bol'she, chem personal'nye [Online]. Available: 1366965/ (accessed: 15.03.2021). (In Russian)

E.V. Talapina, “Pravo i cifrovizaciya: novye vyzovy i perspektivy”, Zhurnal rossijskogo prava, no. 2 (254), pp. 5–17, 2018. (In Russian)

Federal'nyj zakon ot 25 iyulya 1998 goda № 128-FZ (red. ot 01.07.2021) «O gosudarstvennoj daktiloskopicheskoj registracii v Rossijskoj Federacii», Sobranie zakonodatel'stva RF, 1998, no. 31, St. 3806. (In Russian)

Postanovlenie Pravitel'stva RF ot 31 oktyabrya 2018 goda № 1296 «Ob utverzhdenii Pravil napravleniya daktiloskopicheskoj informacii v organy vnutrennih del», Sobranie zakonodatel'stva RF, 2018, no. 46, st. 7046. (In Russian)

Prikaz MVD Rossii, MCHS Rossii, Minoborony Rossii, Minfina Rossii, Minyusta Rossii, Mintransporta Rossii, SVR Rossii, FSB Rossii, FSO Rossii, Rosgvardii, GUSP, Genprokuratury Rossii, SK Rossii ot 23 sentyabrya 2020 goda № 659/717/473/208n/209/385/63/429/185/376/145/502/94 «Ob utverzhdenii Poryadka formirovaniya napravlyaemoj v organy vnutrennih del daktiloskopicheskoj informacii» [Online]. Available: (accessed: 19.09.2022). (In Russian)

M.A. Mihajlov, “Sovershenstvovanie sistemy daktiloskopicheskoj registracii: konferenciya v gosudarstvennoj dume”, Uchenye zapiski Krymskogo federal'nogo universiteta imeni V.I. Vernadskogo. YUridicheskie nauki, no. 1, pp. 292–305, 2015. (In Russian)

Forensic Information Databases Service (FINDS): The Forensic Information Databases Strategy Board policy for access and use of DNA samples, DNA profiles, fingerprint images, and associated data [Online]. Available: system/uploads/attachment_data/file/1052529/FIND_Strategy_Board_Policy_Access_and_Use.pdf (accessed: 19.09.2022).

Poyasnitel'naya zapiska k proektu Federal'nogo zakona «O vnesenii izmenenij v otdel'nye zakonodatel'nye akty Rossijskoj Federacii po voprosam gosudarstvennoj genomnoj registracii». Zakonoproekt № 1048800-7 [Online]. Available: (accessed: 19.09.2022). (In Russian)

National DNA Database Strategy Board Biennial Report 2018 – 2020 [Online]. Available: system/uploads/attachment_data/file/913011/NDNAD_Strategy_Board_AR_2018-2020_Web_Accessible.pdf (accessed: 19.09.2022).

CODIS - NDIS Statistics [Online]. Available: laboratory/biometric-analysis/codis/ndis-statistics (accessed: 19.09.2022).

Federal'nyj zakon ot 3 dekabrya 2008 goda № 242-FZ «O gosudarstvennoj genomnoj registracii v Rossijskoj Federacii», Sobranie zakonodatel'stva Rossijskoj Federacii, 2008, no. 49, st. 5740; 2009, no. 51, st. 6150. (In Russian)

Postanovlenie Pravitel'stva RF ot 11 oktyabrya 2011 goda № 828 «Ob utverzhdenii Polozheniya o poryadke provedeniya obyazatel'noj gosudarstvennoj genomnoj registracii lic, osuzhdennyh i otbyvayushchih nakazanie v vide lisheniya svobody», Sobranie zakonodatel'stva RF, 2011, no. 42, st. 5926. (In Russian)

Z.L. Shkhagapsoev, R.R. Kardanov, “Genomnaya registraciya kak element protivodejstviya prestupleniyam terroristicheskogo haraktera na sovremennom etape”, Izvestiya Tul'skogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Ekonomicheskie i yuridicheskie nauki, no. 1-2, pp. 84–90, 2016. (In Russian)

O.P. Gribunov, “Vseobshchaya daktiloskopicheskaya registraciya grazhdan kak element realizacii kriminalisticheskogo preduprezhdeniya prestuplenij”, Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, no. 402, pp. 188–191, 2016. (In Russian)

T.V. Popova, A.B. Sergeev, “Federal'naya baza dannyh genomnoj informacii v sisteme obespecheniya balansa chastnyh i publichnyh interesov v ugolovnom sudoproizvodstve”, YUridicheskaya nauka i pravoohranitel'naya praktika. No. 1 (39), pp. 132–139, 2017. (In Russian)

Zakonoproekt № 1048800-7 «O vnesenii izmenenij v otdel'nye zakonodatel'nye akty Rossijskoj Federacii po voprosam gosudarstvennoj genomnoj registracii (v chasti rasshireniya perechnya lic. podlezhashchih obyazatel'noj gosudarstvennoj genomnoj registracii)» [Online]. Available: (accessed: 19.09.2022). (In Russian)

A.A. Chernyh, “Podhody Konstitucionnogo Suda Rossijskoj Federacii k voprosu o neobhodimosti polucheniya sudebnyh reshenij pri provedenii operativno-rozysknyh meropriyatij s ispol'zovaniem tekhnicheskih sredstv”, Vestnik Sibirskogo yuridicheskogo instituta MVD Rossii, no. 2 (35), pp. 16–24, 2019. (In Russian)

Postanovlenie Plenuma Verhovnogo Suda RF ot 31 oktyabrya 1995 goda № 8 (red. ot 03.03.2015) «O nekotoryh voprosah primeneniya sudami Konstitucii Rossijskoj Federacii pri osushchestvlenii pravosudiya», Rossijskaya gazeta, 1995, December 28. (In Russian)

Affaire Trabajo Rueda c. Espagne (Requête № 32600/12) [Online]. Available: (accessed: 19.09.2022).

Case of Szabó and Vissy v. Hungary (Application № 37138/14) [Online]. Available: (accessed: 19.09.2022).

Case of Big Brother Watch and others v. The United Kingdom (Applications №№ 58170/13, 62322/14 and 24960/15) [Online]. Available: (accessed: 19.09.2022).

Postanovlenie Konstitucionnogo Suda RF ot 20 maya 1997 goda № 8-P «Po delu o proverke konstitucionnosti punktov 4 i 6 stat'i 242 i stat'i 280 Tamozhennogo kodeksa Rossijskoj Federacii v svyazi s zaprosom Novgorodskogo oblastnogo suda», Rossijskaya gazeta, 1997, May 29. (In Russian)

Postanovlenie Konstitucionnogo Suda RF ot 11 marta 1998 goda № 8-P «Po delu o proverke konstitucionnosti stat'i 266 Tamozhennogo kodeksa Rossijskoj Federacii, chasti vtoroj stat'i 85 i stat'i 222 Kodeksa RSFSR ob administrativnyh pravonarusheniyah v svyazi s zhalobami grazhdan M.M. Gagloevoj i A.B. Pestryakova», Rossijskaya gazeta, 1998, March 26. (In Russian)

Postanovlenie Konstitucionnogo Suda RF ot 16 iyulya 2008 goda № 9-P «Po delu o proverke konstitucionnosti polozhenij stat'i 82 Ugolovno-processual'nogo kodeksa Rossijskoj Federacii v svyazi s zhaloboj grazhdanina V.V. Kostyleva», Rossijskaya gazeta, 2008, August 1. (In Russian)

Chamber Judgments B.B.. Gardel. M.B. v. France [Online]. Available: (accessed: 07.03.2022).

Case of Gaughran v. The United Kingdom (Application № 45245/15) [Online]. Available: (accessed: 07.03.2022).

Case of M.K. v. France (Application № 19522/09) [Online]. Available: (accessed: 07.03.2022).

Affaire Brunet c. France (Requête № 21010/10) [Online]. Available: (accessed: 07.03.2022).

Fichier national automatisé des empreintes génétiques (FNAEG) [Online]. Available: (accessed: 07.03.2022).

Case of Youth Initiative for Human Rights v. Serbia (Application № 48135/06) [Online]. Available: (accessed: 07.03.2022).

Federal'nyj zakon ot 2 maya 2006 goda №59-FZ (red. ot 27.12.2018) «O poryadke rassmotreniya obrashchenij grazhdan Rossijskoj Federacii», Rossijskaya gazeta, 2006, May 5. (In Russian)

Opredelenie Konstitucionnogo Suda RF ot 20 oktyabrya 2005 goda № 375-O «Ob otkaze v prinyatii k rassmotreniyu zhaloby grazhdanina Makarenko Anatoliya Mihajlovicha na narushenie ego konstitucionnyh prav chast'yu chetvertoj stat'i 29 Ugolovno-processual'nogo kodeksa Rossijskoj Federacii i stat'yami 6 - 9 Federal'nogo zakona "Ob operativno-rozysknoj deyatel'nosti» [Online]. Available: (accessed: 07.03.2022). (In Russian)


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Abava  Absolutech Convergent 2022

ISSN: 2307-8162