Experiencing the presence in the passive virtual environment

N. V. Averbukh


In the paper we examine the presence in the passive virtual environment. This approach looks more realistic in the light of analysis of intellectual activity in the VR. The main tool used in the paper is the structured interview. The structured interview based on the main types and components of presence, and on the actions of the subject during the virtual session, was tested in the active virtual environment.

Interview questions related to the spatial and social presence, and distraction factors and the embodiment which is a component of the spatial presence.

We used so called “Kohs' block test” that is a subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale as the virtual environment. During the experiment, the solution time and the effectiveness (correctness) of the solution were recorded. After the experiment, the subjects were offered a structured interview. The answers of the subjects to the interview were translated into dichotomous scales. The main objective of the paper is the relationship between the answers to various interview questions, as well as between the answers to the interview and the effectiveness of solving the test. A significant connection was found between the experienced spatial presence and the embodiment. The embodiment was expressed in the desire of the subjects to move virtual blocks with their hands during the session, as if they were real, and not to use a controller. The answers to the other interview questions turned out to be unrelated. Being aware of where the Other (experimenter) is who is not represented in the virtual environment does not affect the experience of spatial presence. Thus, experiencing the social presence of another person who is not connected to the virtual environment does not prevent participants from feeling themselves in the virtual environment. In addition, the presence was not found to be related either to the decision time or to the correctness of the decision.

Full Text:

PDF (Russian)



Zinchenko Yu.P. Virtual Reality Technologies in the System of Postnonclassical Psychology // The world Of Psychology. 2013. № 1(73). P. 31–42. (In Russian)

Sergeev S.F. Basic concepts of Constructivism pedagogy: Reality,

reality, virtuality // School Technologies. 2009. No 2. P. 9-11. URL: http://mars.arbicon.ru/index.php?mdl=content&id=64866 (accessed: 25.08.2021). (In Russian)

Sergeev, S.F. Presence in the environment: methodology and theory of learning // School Technologies. 2011. No 5. P. 43-54. URL: http://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=16862121 (accessed: 25.08.2021). (In Russian)

Sergeev S.F. Presence and immersiveness in learning environments. St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University Press. 2011. (In Russian)

Selivanov V.V., Selivanova L.N. Virtual reality as a method and means of learning // Obrazovatel'nye tekhnologii i obshchestvo. 2014. Vol. 17. No 3. P. 378–391. URL: https://readera.org/virtualnaja-realnost-kak-metod-i-sredstvo-obuchenija-14062791 (accessed: 25.08.2021). (In Russian)

Selivanov V.V., Selivanova L.N. The effectiveness of the use of virtual reality in teaching in youth and adulthood // Continuous education: XXI century. 2015. Iss. 1(9). P. 1-20. (In Russian)

Selivanov V.V., Pobokin P.A., Babieva N.S. Interaction of the individual with educational and training programs in virtual reality // Human Capital. 2018. No. 11(119). Part 2. P. 263-269. (In Russian)

Kovyazina M.S., Rasskazova E.I., Men'shikova G.YA., Kovalyov A.I., Varako N.A. Innovative instrumental technologies in the system of clinical and psychological diagnostics and rehabilitation // Bulletin of the RFBR. Fundamental problems in human and social mental health research. 2019. No. 4 (104). P. 23-30. (In Russian)

Steuer J. Defining virtual reality: dimensions determining telepresence // Journal of Communication. 1992. Vol. 42. Iss. 4. P. 73-93.

Pettifer, S. An operating environment for large scale virtual reality. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Manchester. 1999. URL: https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/An-operating-environment-for-large-scale-virtual-Pettifer/97bad23adaa959bd0f8eeaa8f3eaf05b2cc157b3 (accessed: 25.08.2021).

International Society for Presence Research. The Concept of Presence: Explication Statement. URL: https://ispr.info/about-presence-2/about-presence/ (accessed: 25.08.2021).

Velichkovsky B.B. Psychological factors of the emerging sense of presence in virtual environments // National Psychological Journal. 2014. No 3(15). P. 31-38. (In Russian)

Velichkovsky B.B. Influence of error detection and correction on the phenomenon of presence in virtual environments // Psychology of human development as a subject of labor. Development of the creative heritage of E. A. Klimov. Materials of the International Scientific and Practical Conference. Materialy Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii. Moscow, October 12-15, 2016 / Ed. by Yu. P. Zinchenko, A. B. Leonova, O. G. Noskova. LLC Akropolis, Moscow, 2016. P. 240-249. (In Russian)

Velichkovsky B.B., Gusev A.N., Vinogradova V.F., Arbekova O.A. Cognitive control and a sense of presence in virtual environments // Experimental Psychology. 2016. Vol. 9. No. 1. P. 5–20. DOI:10.17759/exppsy.2016090102 (In Russian)

Slater M. Presence and The Sixth Sense // Presence. 2002. Vol. 11. No. 4. P. 435–439.

Sanchez-Vives M. V., Slater M. From presence to consciousness through virtual reality // Nature Reviews Neurosciencevolume. 2005. No 6. P. 332–339.

Lombard M., Jones M. T. Defining Presence // Immersed in Media: Telepresence Theory,Measurement & Technology / Eds M. Lombard, F. Biocca, J. Freeman,W. IJsselsteijn, R. Schaevitz. New York, NY: Springer. 2015. P. 13-34.

Skarbez R., Brooks Jr F., Whitton M. A survey of presence and related concepts // ACM Computing Surveys. 2017. No 50(6). P. 1–39. DOI: 10.1145/3134301

Waterworth J.A., Waterworth E.L. Altered, Expanded and Distributed Embodiment: the Three Stages of Interactive Presence // Interacting with presence: HCI and the sense of presence in computer-mediated environments / Eds Riva G., Waterworth J., Murray D. De Gruyter Open Ltd. 2014. P. 32-45.

Interacting with presence: HCI and the sense of presence in computer-mediated environments / Eds Riva G., Waterworth J., Murray D. De Gruyter Open Ltd. 2014.

Berkman M.I., Akan E. Presence and Immersion in Virtual Reality / Lee N. (eds) Encyclopedia of Computer Graphics and Games. Springer, Cham. 2019.

Schuemie M.J., Van Der Straaten P., Krijn M., Van Der Mast C.A. Research on presence in virtual reality: a survey // Cyberpsychol. Behav. 2001. No 4. P. 183–201. DOI: 10.1089/109493101300117884

Nash E.B., Edwards G.W., Thompson J.A., Barfield W. A Review of Presence and Performance in Virtual Environments // International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction. 2000. No 12:1. P. 1-41. DOI: 10.1207/S15327590IJHC1201_1

Slater M., Linakis V., Usoh M., Kooper R., Street G. Immersion, Presence, and Performance in Virtual Environments: An Experiment with Tri-Dimensional Chess. ACM Virtual Reality Software and Technology (VRST). 1996. P. 163–172.

Slater M. Measuring Presence: A Response to the Witmer and Singer Presence Questionnaire // Presence, Teleoperators and Virtual Environments. 1999. Vol. 8. No. 5. P. 560-565.

Филимоненко Ю.И., Тимофеев В.И. Тест Векслера. Диагностика структуры интеллекта (взрослый вариант): методическое руководство. СПб, ГП «ИМАТОН». 2004.

Witmer B.G., Singer M.J. Measuring presence in virtual environments: A presence questionnaire // Presence. 1998. Vol. 7. No 3. P. 225–240.

Wirth W., Hartmann T., Böcking S., Vorderer P., Klimmt C., Schramm H., Saari T., Laarni J., Ravaja N., Gouveia F.R., Biocca F., Sacau A., Jäncke L., Baumgartner T., Jäncke P. Constructing Presence: A Two-Level Model of the Formation of Spatial Presence Experiences // NordiCHI '04 Proceedings of the third Nordic conference on Human-computer interaction. 2004. P. 409-412.

Slater M., Steed A. A Virtual Presence Counter // Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments. 2000. Vol. 9. Iss. 5. P.413-434.

Riva G. Enacting Interactivity: The Role of Presence // Enacting Intersubjectivity: A Cognitive and Social Perspective on the Study of Interactions / Eds Morganti F., Carassa A., Riva G. Amsterdam, IOS Press. 2008. P. 97-114.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Abava  Absolutech Convergent 2022

ISSN: 2307-8162